Mini-Konferenz Klimawandel

Europe/Berlin
Description

Vorträge im Rahmen des "Physik- und Kompetenzseminars" im BSc-Studiengang Physik an der JGU Mainz

  • Monday, 3 February
    • 14:15 15:45
      Übersicht, Kernenergie und Kernfusion
      • 14:15
      • 14:30
        Wolken und Wasser (Manuel Kai Andreas Hagelüken) 15m
      • 14:45
        Energiebedarf und Effizienz (Bastian Keßler) 15m
      • 15:00
        Kernkraft neu überdacht (Kerem Akdogan) 15m
      • 15:15
        Kernkraftwerke in Frankreich (Vincent Marie-Lazare Roy) 15m
      • 15:30
        Kernfusion 15m

        Rising average global temperature is one of the most threatening problems humanity will face in the coming decades. The development of more environmentally friendly energy sources could have a considerable impact by slowing further global warming. A viable solution is nuclear fusion, as further research into the realization of nuclear fusion power plants could lead to access to one of the most environmentally friendly, stable and powerful energy sources available. Currently, the highly funded international research purpose nuclear fusion reactor ITER is under construction and will begin experiments on deuterium-tritium plasma in 2035. If the ITER project is successful it will have laid the groundwork for the construction of nuclear power plants with the final purpose of efficiently producing electricity. Then, by about 2050, mankind will be able to reap the benefits of this powerful source of energy. The material used is so energetically dense, that it will be possible to produce enough power from one tonne of deuterium-tritium to cover Germany's power consumption for over 50 days. This high energetic density contributes to the low environmental impact of nuclear fusion power plants, since the amount of fusion material needed in these plants is relatively low. While long-lived radioactive waste poses a considerable problem in nuclear fission, nuclear fusion only produces short-lived radioactive waste, such that it will be possible to safely store it on-site and recycle it after a few decades. Another advantage over nuclear fission is that there is no risk of a nuclear disaster, because the deuterium-tritium plasma simply cools off if something goes wrong inside the reactor, whereas nuclear fission power plants might start an uncontrollable chain reaction leading to a meltdown. So further research into nuclear fusion as an energy source and funding projects such as ITER should be supported to eventually grant humanity access to one of the most efficient and sustainable sources of energy to date.

        Speaker: Mr Maurice Schmitt
    • 16:00 17:15
      Photovoltaik und Wind
  • Tuesday, 4 February
    • 14:15 15:30
      Energie, Wärmedämmmung, Verkehr
    • 15:45 17:00
      Verkehr, Ernährung, Aufforstung
      • 15:45
        Das Elektroauto- die Lösung? (Samuel Weber) 15m
      • 16:00
        Klimawandel und Luftverkehr 15m

        Climate Chang and Aviation (abstract not final)
        In order to reduce the emitted climate gasses into the atmosphere, it is important to reduce those emitted by aviation, which is responsible for 2% of the global CO2 emissions. The high flight altitudes of about 10 km also change the impact of emissions, which are primarily carbon dioxide and water. Emitted water vapour is a climate gas, while condensed water effects the climate and weather in uncertain ways. By 2050, they are likely increasing to 4% to 15% of those emissions. A solution for reducing the emission of climate gasses by aviation is in the context of the climate change therefore wanted. An important step is the reduction of short-distance flights. Short-distance flights have a worse fuel consumption per kilometre than medium-distance flights. Furthermore, they are easier to replace by alternative transportation methods. A train travel will produce about 1/40th of the emissions of a short-distance flight. Other solutions are innovative airframes with less drag, more effective engines and power-to-fuel. They will reduce the emitted climate gasses but will only help to compensate the increasing numbers of flights. Only a reduction in the overall number of flights, best achievable with short-distance flights, will reduce the emissions created by aviation far enough, to help with the climate change.

        Speaker: Can Patric Leichtweiß
      • 16:15
        Klimawandel und Schifffahrt (Shahin Ebrahim Sepanlou) 15m
      • 16:30
        Fleischkonsum und Klimawandel 15m
        Speaker: Emanuel Meuser
      • 16:45
        Aufforstung 15m

        Increasing concentrations of $CO_2$ in the atmosphere is changing the climate. This leads to one of the most threatening problems humanity will face in the next decades. The global temperature rises so fast that animals and plants often cannot adapt to these changes. One way to reduce the $CO_2$ concentration is to store it in plants by the effect of photosynthesis. The rate of photosynthesis depends on various factors like $CO_2$ concentration in the air, temperature or light intensity. Thus restoring forests around the globe could help to mitigate climate change. If we take into account that we still need agricultural and urban areas, current climate conditions can support additional 0.9 billion hectares of continuous forest cover. This is estimated to store around 200 gigatonnes of carbon which is equivalent to around $\frac{2}{3}$ of the globally emitted $CO_2$ since the beginning of the industrialization. Under a 'business as usual' scenario the global tree cover could shrink by about 200 million hectare by 2050 due to changes in climate conditions. In tropical regions the losses of potential tree cover are the highest and more dramatic because the average tree cover in tropical regions is higher than in colder regions. There are however even more drawbacks like the change of surface albedo or the emission of volatile organic compounds which could possibly alter the effects of reforestation. In short this shows the urgence to act now to reforest areas to mitigate climate change.

        Speaker: Mr Christian Seltenreich